· Republic Act No. 9155 known as the Governance of Basic Education Act emphasizes the decentralization of school governance.

· Local Government Code of the Philippines or Republic Act 7160 enables communities to be more effective partners in the attainment of national goals.

· The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP 2004-2010) requires localized educational management that would enable schools to focus on enhancing initiative, creativity, innovation and effectiveness.

· The over all goal of the Philippine Education for All (EFA) Plan-2015 is to make all Filipinos functionally literate. This means that all Filipinos should have a complete range of skills and competencies that would enable them to:
o Live and work as human persons;
o Develop their potentials;
o Make critical and informed decisions; and
o Function effectively in society, whithin the context of their own environment and that of the wider community (local, regional, national and global) to improve the quality of their lives and that of society.

Pursuant to the implementing rules and regulations of EFA Plan 2015, BESRA was conceptualized and institutionalized. In BESRA, proven effective initiatives of the Department of Education which are geared towards increased access to quality and relevant basic education are sustained and institutionalized. BESRA focuses on specific policy actions known as its five key reform thrusts (KRTs):

· KRT 1 : Continuous school improvement facilitated by active involvement of

· KRT 2 : Better Learning outcomes achieved through standards-driven
Reforms in education and development

· KRT 3 : Desired learning outcomes enhanced by National Learning
Strategies, Multi-Sector Coordination and Quality Assurance

· KRT 4 : Improved impact on outcomes resulting from complementary early
childhood education and alternative learning systems; and

· KRT 5 : Changed institutional culture of DepED that better support these
Key reform thrusts.

The preparation of specific proposals for each of the policy actions identified in this BESRA framework is being handled by nine task teams known as Technical Working Groups (TWGs). They were organized by DepED with members drawn from various stakeholder groups from the central office to the school level with consultants engaged to assist them.

The five KRTs are separated into several focus areas:

KRT 1: Continuous school improvement facilitated by the active involvement of
Stakeholders through School-Based Management (SBM);

KRT 2: Better learning outcomes achieved through standards-driven reforms in
Teacher Education and Development (TED);

KRT 3: Desired Learning Outcomes enhanced by National Learning Strategies and Quality Assurance

· National Learning Startegies
· Indigenous Peoples and Muslim Education
· Livelihood Education Program
· Quality Assurance and Accountability and
Monitoring and Evaluation;

KRT 4: Improved impact on outcomes resulting from complementary preschool education ande alternative learning systems initiatives

· Preschool education
· Alternative Learning System; and

KRT 5: Changed Institutional Culture of DepED that better support the key reform thrusts

· Organizational Development (OD)
· Outcome-Focused Resource Mobilization and Management
(Including Public-Private Partnership)

· Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Governance and Management

School-Based Management

School-Based Management (SBM) is the strategy for which DepED hopes to achieve quality and relevant basic education in the domain of BESRA’s key reform thrust 1. SBM is the decentralization of decision-making authority to schools. Through SBM, all schools, together with their communities and stakeholders take more active responsibility for improving the learning of students.

SBM aims to:

· Empower school heads to lead their teachers and students in a continuous school improvement process leading to higher learning outcomes;

· Bring resources including funds within the control of schools to support the delivery of quality educational services;

· Strengthen partnerships with communities and LGUs to encourage them to invest time, money and other resources in providing better school learning environment; and

· Institutionalize a continuous school improvement process that is participatory and knowledge-based.

School-Based Management (SBM) serves as the main tool for continuous improvement of the school.

The group that is tasked on developing policy actions focused on the continuous improvement of learning outcomes facilitated by the active involvement of stakeholders is the School-Based Management Technical Working Group (SBM-TWG).