Table of Contents

List of Acronyms
DepED Memorandum

1. Introduction

2. The Background
2.1 Legal Bases
2.1.1 Republic Act 9155
2.1.2 Batas Pambansa 232
2.1.3 Education For All (EFA) 2015
2.1.4 Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA)
2.2 School Governance
2.2.1 Definition
2.2.2 Basic Concepts Shared Leadership Shared Commitment Shared Accountability
2.2.3 People Involved in School Governance
2.3 The School Governing Council
2.3.1 Purpose
2.3.2 Mission Statement
2.3.3 Guiding Principal

3. The Function and the Limitations in the Exercise of Authority of the
School Governing Council and the Functions of the School Head in the
School Governing Council
3.1 Functions
3.1.1 The SGC
3.1.2 The School Head
3.2 Limitations
4. Roles and Relationships
4.1 School Head as SGC Chief Executive Officer
4.2 Role of the SGCl
4.3 Relationships
4.4 Summary Points

5. Getting Started
5.1 Overview of the Election Process
5.2 Installation Procedures
5.3 Composition of SGCs
5.4 Organization Process

6. Assessment
6.1 Monitoring and Evaluation
6.1.1 Evaluation of Council Operations
6.2 Accountabilities
6.2.1 Accountability of the SGC to the School Community
6.2.2 Acountability of the SGC to DepED

7. Matrix of SBM Dimensions and Scale of Practice


1. Sample Documents
1.1 Sample Membership Procedure
1.2 Sample Objectives of the SGC
1.3 Sample Code of Conduct/Code of Practice of the SGC
1.4 Sample Operating Procedures of the SGC
1.5 Office Holders of the SGC and Duty Statement
1.5.1 Officer Holders
1.5.2 Duty Statements
1.6 Sample Committees in the SGC and their Terms of Reference
1.6.1 Curriculum Committee
1.6.2 Beautification Committee/School Grounds Committee
1.6.3 Ways and Means Committee
1.6.4 Program Monitoring and Evaluation Committee
1.6.5 Committee on Student Welfare and Discipline
1.6.6 Canteen Committee
1.6.7 Committee on Buildings and Grounds
1.7 Sample School Governing Council Constitution and By-laws
1.8 Samples of Decision-Making Processes
2. Assessment Process and Tools
2.1 School Governing Council Self-Assessment
2.2 Graphical Representation of School Self-Evaluation Scheme
2.3 School Self-Evaluation (SSE) Report

List of Acronyms
Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda
Constitution and By-laws
Department of Education
Education for All
Government of the Philippines
Key Reform Thrust
Local Government Unit
Local School Board
Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses
Non-Government Organization
Parents Teachers Association
Parents Teachers and Community Association
School-Based Management
Schools Division Superintendent
Schools First Initiative
School Governance Advisory Council
School Governing Council
School Improvement Plan
School Planning Team
School Self-Evaluation


The Department of Education has stepped up its efforts to decentralize education management – a strategy that is expected to improve the Department’s operating efficiency and upgrade education quality.
We are now accelerating the implementation of School-Based Management (SBM), a key component of Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda or BESRA. With SBM, the school as key provider of education, will be equipped to empower its key officials to make informed and localized decisions based on their unique needs toward improving our educational system.
This Manual on School Governing Council has been produced as a tool to help educators manage and run our schools efficiently and effectively. It highlights the strategic importance of educating our children and other stakeholders in participating in educational activities. This emphasis will make the task of our school heads and teachers easier, as the community will be one with them in their efforts to improve the school.
The content of this Manual has been developed and prepared with the participation of education specialists who have practical and diverse experiences in their field. The concepts have been pilot-tested in several projects such as the Third Elementary Education Project (TEEP), the Secondary Education Development and Improvement Project (SEDIP), Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) and Strengthening the Implementation of Basic Education in the Visayas (STRIVE). The projects have created tremendous positive changes and improvement in the schools. After being tried out in project sites, the concepts were further validated by school heads in remote schools. I can say with full confidence that these concepts have been tried, tested and passed strict scrutiny.
In implementing SBM, the Department is doing all it can to create an environment where all the people involved commit to make change happen under a decentralized setup. This change is ultimately geared towards the school children’s enjoyment of their right to quality education and other equally important rights such as the right to be safe and healthy, to be protected from harm and abuse, to play and to have leisure, to express their views freely, and to participate in decision-making according to their evolving capacities.
For this new setup to succeed, our principals and teachers need to develop their people skills and managerial capabilities. They have to be empowered to be catalysts for change in our schools.
Let me encourage you to understand well the Manual and own its concepts and principles. Be empowered to strengthen partnerships, engage education stakeholders and produce graduates who are fully equipped for the 21st century.

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Department of Education

September 11 2009

DepED MEMORANDUM No. 386, s. 2009

To: Undersecretaries Assistant Secretaries Bureau Directors Regional Directors Schools Division/City Superintendents Head, Public Elementary and Secondary Schools
1. In addition to the four (4) Primers on School-Based Management cited in DepED Order No. 37, s. 2009, the Technical Working Group (TWG) on School-Based Management (SBM) developed the following three (3) Manuals in support of its institutionalization:

a. Manual on Assessment of SBM Practice. Presents the SBM Framework, the six (6) Dimensions of the SBM Assessment Instrument and the next-steps after the conduct of assessment. It enables the school to determine its level of SBM practice and the technical assistance it needs from support offices;
b. Manual on School Governing Council. Provides schools with the basic information on the organization and operationalization of School Governing Councils; and
c. Manual on School Improvement Planning. Discusses in detail the “why”, the “what”, the “who”, the “when”, and the “how” of school improvement planning. It is intended to help schools craft and implement, monitor and evaluate the same (SIPs) and (AIPs).
2. These Manuals are being printed and will be distributed to schools, DepED Offices and stakeholders when these are ready.

3. Schools are urged to utilize these materials for their guidance in their practice of SBM.

4. Immediate and wide dissemination of this Memorandum is desired.

JESLI A. LAPUS Secretary

1. Introduction
This Manual on School Governing Council is a guidebook to assist Philippine schools in establishing and operationalizing School Governing Councils geared toward the holistic development of schoolchildren. It provides basic information on how to organize and operationalize School Governing Councils (SGCs) which are child-centered and focused on the learner’s performance. The experiences of schools with functional school councils are utilized to assist schools.
Schools can use this Manual for the following purposes:
a) to organize an SGC b) to develop different elements of SGC such as:
§ code of practice/conduct, § operating procedures, § constitution and by-laws, § decision-making process, and § duty statements of council officers and committee members
c) to identify the functions and roles of the members of the SGC d) to enhance existing SGC structures and processes
2. Background
2.1 Legal Bases
2.1.1 Republic Act 9155 (Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001, approved on Nov. 29, 2002) Section 2, paragraphs 3 and 4 state that: Governance of basic education shall begin at the national level. It is at the regions, divisions, schools and learning centers herein referred to as field offices where policy and principle for the governance of basic education shall be translated into programs, projects and services developed, adapted and offered to fit local needs.
The state shall encourage local initiatives for improving quality of basic education. The state shall ensure that the values, needs, and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for the children, out-of-school youth and adult learners. Schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for the learners they serve.
Section 1.2 provides the principles that guide the implementation of the act and the application of its rules: iv) The parents and the community shall be encouraged for active involvement in the education of the child. The participation and coordination between and among schools, the local school boards, the Parent Teachers Associations (PTAs) must be maximized; andv) Volunteerism from among all sectors shall be emphasized and encouraged to ensure sustainable growth and development in education. These provisions strongly uphold the current initiatives of schools in involving the different groups of stakeholders in school improvement processes.
Another purpose/objective provided in Section 3, (f) is to “encourage local initiatives for the improvement of schools and learning centers and to provide the means by which these improvements may be achieved and sustained.”
2.1.2 Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 (Education Act of 1982, approved on September 11, 1982)
Section 3, Chapter 2, states that it is “the policy of the state to establish and maintain a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development”. The educational system is expected to contribute to the following national development goals:
1. To achieve and maintain an accelerated rate of economic development and social progress;2. To ensure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in a changing world.The state shall promote the right of the nation's cultural communities in the exercise of their right to develop themselves within the context of their cultures, customs, traditions, interest and belief, and recognizes education as an instrument for their maximum participation in national development and in ensuring their involvement in achieving national unity.
Section 7 states that:
Every educational institution shall provide for the establishment of appropriate bodies through which the members of the educational community may discuss relevant issues and communicate information and suggestions for assistance and support of the school and for the promotion of their common interest. Representatives from each subgroup of the educational community shall sit and participate in these bodies, the rules and procedures of which must be approved by them and duly published.
2.1.3 Philippine Education for All (EFA) 2015The Philippine Education for All (EFA) 2015 Plan is a vision and a holistic program of reforms that aim to improve the quality of basic education for every Filipino by 2015.
To attain EFA 2015, schools should continuously perform better. The key action involves the school’s assessment of its capabilities and performance towards attaining EFA goals. The stakeholders of every school (school head, teachers, parents, students, community leaders, other groups interested in school practices) shall be able to use processes and results to determine and implement school programs to ensure continuous improvement in school quality.
Building on its task on governance, every learning site shall create a network of community-based groups to work together as influential champions that support the attainment of EFA goals.
Schools shall continue to harness local resources and facilitate involvement of every sector of the community in the school improvement process.
2.1.4 Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA)Below is an excerpt from the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) to enable the stakeholders to have a common understanding of the policy and purpose of the state in ensuring the attainment of national development goals through the active involvement of community stakeholders in the different field offices of the Department of Education (DepED).
The Schools First Initiative (SFI) is the government’s strategy for improving basic education. It is a popular movement featuring a wide variety of local initiatives (a kind of “thousand flowers bloom” movement) by individual schools, localities, school divisions, local governments, communities, civil society organizations and other interest groups and associations. SFI is also a policy reform package of institutional, structural, financial and other critical changes necessary to accelerate, broaden, deepen and sustain education reform. BESRA is the national government policy reform component of the SFI.
BESRA is the basis of the government’s directions and actions to attain improved basic education competencies for all Filipinos. The implementation of BESRA serves as the framework for a coordinated sector-wide approach to donors’ and partners’ participation in SFI.
The first Key Reform Thrust (KRT 1) of BESRA underscores the empowerment of key stakeholders in school communities which would enable them to actively participate in the continuous improvement of schools.
The KRT1 key indicators are:
i. Increased number of schools with School Improvement Plans (SIP) prepared through a participatory process and with organized SGCs; ii. Improved quality of SIP implementation, including link of SIP activities with student learning outcomes and link of teacher training priorities with student assessment data; and iii. Increased level of resources managed and controlled at the school level.
Based on their level of readiness, schools can participate in SFI at any one of these four stages:
Stage 1. School Head engages stakeholders in school improvement planning. Stage 2. School Head involves existing organizations like the PTCA in school improvement. Stage 3. School head blends a group of people from among stakeholders who, together, embody leadership for school improvement. Stage 4. School Head and a group of people from among stakeholders create a School Governing Council to direct school improvement.
Schools may progress through these stages of development according to their pace.
In the BESRA School-Based Management (SBM) Framework and Standards and levels of practice, SGCs are expected to evolve from Level I (being organized), to Level II (fully functional) and to Level III (championing and advocating continuous school improvement). (Please refer to the SBM Framework and Standards in Section 7 of this Manual).
It is, therefore, imperative for the school head, teachers, students and parents to gain adequate and appropriate information as well as skills in engaging other groups of community stakeholders in school improvement processes to ensure that these improvements are achieved and sustained.
2.2 School Governance
2.2.1 DefinitionSchool governance refers to the authority of education stakeholders to jointly make decisions directed towards the continuous improvement of learning and promotion of children’s welfare in the school. It is the interface among school stakeholders who make strategic decisions that shape the school and its work and are, therefore, ultimately accountable for the work and actions of the whole system.
The school, as an organization, defines the relationships among the key players in its operations and expands its ability to work with the stakeholders through an effective governance structure composed of representatives from different groups of school community stakeholders.
Thus, school governance is a system which operates under the principle that education which is focused on the holistic development of school children is a shared responsibility and a shared accountability among school community stakeholders.
2.2.2 Basic Concepts
Someone said: A sustainable governance structure in school should produce stable and effective leadership which underpins achievement of the school’s objectives, and which is sensitive to guarding the vision and values of the past, whilst being responsive to changes in community values and the preferences of the immediate stakeholders. ( (05-14-08))A stable and effective leadership is characterized as shared leadership, shared commitment and shared accountability Shared Leadership
The concept of shared leadership in schools can be viewed from three perspectives. First, shared leadership can be viewed as leadership-as-partnership where internal and external school stakeholders, who are guided by a shared vision, work together to accomplish a common goal. Second, it can be seen as distributed leadership, where school heads enhance the knowledge and skills of the people in the school organization to create a common culture of expectations and hold everyone accountable. Third, shared leadership can also take place by developing a Community of Leaders where school heads openly articulate the goal, share decision-making authority with the school stakeholders, and involve the stakeholders before decisions are made. When stakeholders are included in the decision-making process, they are more likely to implement change that ultimately benefits the learning and development of school children. Shared Commitment
A great business leader underscores the importance of shared commitment:
"...the basic philosophy, spirit, and drive of an organization have far more to do with its relative achievements than do technological or economic resources, organizational structure, innovation, and timing. All these things weigh heavily in success. But they are, I think, transcended by how strongly the people in the organization believe in its basic precepts and how faithfully they carry them out." (Thomas J. Watson, Jr., A Business and its Beliefs - The ideas that helped build IBM.05-14-08)
In the school context, success in school improvement efforts is greatly determined by the quality of the shared commitment of all stakeholders - shared commitment that is founded on the spirit of shared ownership of the school. School leaders should facilitate the development of shared organizational values, trust, and a systems perspective which serves as a strong foundation on which school-based shared decision-making is built. When school leaders help stakeholders move sources of power, motivation, self-esteem and well-being, those within the school community develop a broader and deeper sense of responsibility to the work they share and a strong commitment to see the school succeed. Shared Accountability
Accountability means taking one’s fair share of responsibility for outcomes. Being accountable means one answers for his/her actions as well as the results of his/her actions. Accountability is not only taking credit, but also accepting the blame.
Shared accountability in schools should be viewed as a process of continuous collective engagement of stakeholders geared towards different activities and actions to be taken to improve school performance, with an ultimate direction of improving student learning outcomes and promoting students’ welfare. 2.2.3 People involved in school governance
In school governance, stakeholders with harmonized perspectives and experiences are crucial in improving the lives of children, youth, families and the community. These groups of stakeholders may be formally represented in a governance structure in the school system. In the SBM Framework and Standards adopted by the DepEd, these School Governance structures are called School Governing Councils (SGCs). They are composed of:
§ Internal Stakeholders
o Students and student organizations
o Parents of students/pupils and Parent associations
o Teachers, Non-teaching and Teacher Associations in the school

§ External Stakeholders
o Various Government Agencies
o Non-Government Agencies [[#_ftn1|[1]]]
o Alumni
o Retirees
o Professionals
o Basic Sectors: Business, Fisherfolks, Farmers, Indigenous People, Cultural Minority, others
2.3 The School Governing Council
2.3.1 Purpose
The SGC provides a forum for parents, students, teachers, community stakeholders and the school head to work together towards continuously improving student learning outcomes. SGCs provide the opportunity and the environment to: § Develop shared responsibility in the children’s learning and holistic development § Encourage and facilitate effective community stakeholder participation in school improvement process focused on children’s learning and welfare
The SGC is not intended to replace parent organizations such as the PTA/PTCA.
This model of governance has the following features:
1. The cooperative role of the SGC and school staff is emphasized. 2. Management and governance are clearly separated. 3. The focus is on improving student learning outcomes. 4. The broad directions are set and monitored by the Council. 5. The school head and staff are responsible for reporting progress of SIP implementation to the SGC
2.3.2 Mission Statement
The participation of the School Governing Council in school practices shall be guided by a mission statement developed by the Council itself. The mission statement of the School Governing Council communicates the ground for its existence.
The Council mission statement conveys:
§ The reason for its existence § The clientele the Council wishes to serve § The Council’s intention to produce in relation to the school vision
Sample School Governing Council Mission Statement:
The School Governing Council of Assiduous National High School seeks to collaboratively work with school staff and the entire school community in incorporating learning resources into the improvement processes of the school to ensure continuous enhancement of student learning outcomes and the students’ holistic development.
2.3.3 Guiding Principles
The SGC’s guiding principles are:
§ Inclusive - ensures that all voices in the school community, including Indigenous Peoples’ group, are heard and all perspectives are taken into account in the school processes § Respectful - recognizes differences among its constituents and appreciates all viewpoints § Trustworthy - conducts its operations in an open and transparent manner § Responsible - strives to respond to the needs and aspirations of the community they serve § Effective - continuously makes a difference in their students’ learning § Committed - commits to fulfill their role as a link in school level governance
The following indicators of an effective SGC may also be considered as guide for Council operations:
§ openness § transparency § effective communication § synergy § continuous personal development § cooperation and trust § good leadership § clear and shared goals
SGCs may establish their own guiding principles that best fit their aspirations.
3. Governance
Governance of SGCs is the responsibility of the Council whose functions and roles are directed by the SGC Constitution and By-laws and the Code of Practice. (Please refer to Appendix 1.1).
3.1 Functions
3.1.1 The SGC
The SGC determines the general policies of the school on: § Student welfare, discipline and well-being § Development and Implementation of the SIP § Monitoring and Evaluation of the SIP Implementation § Reporting progress of SIP Implementation to the SDS and the community § Management of Council resources
The authority of the SGC is exercised in accordance with government legislation, administrative instructions and the Council Constitution and By-laws.
3.1.2 The School Head
The functions of the School Head in the SGC are to:
§ establish school and community networks and encourage the active involvement of school community stakeholders in school improvement processes and, § serve as the Chief Executive Officer of the Council.
3.2 Limitations
The following are limitations of the authority of the SGC:
§ It shall not directly manage the schools because it is the responsibility of the School Head. § The power and responsibilities of the SGC shall be lodged in the SGC acting as one body and not with individual members. § It shall act through the School Head in the conduct of its affairs and shall not act on its own in any financial transactions involving the school. § It shall not enter into or be bound by any contractual transactions for and in-behalf of the school unless authorized for such purpose in its Constitution and By-laws. § All decisions of the SGC shall conform to existing laws and policies and regulations of DepEd. It shall conduct its affairs in keeping with the school’s decision-making processes. It shall adopt a Constitution and By-laws to guide its decisions.
4. Roles and Relationships

4.1 School Head as SGC Chief Executive Officer

§ Implement the SIP Once the SIP is accepted by the Schools Division Superintendent upon the joint endorsement of the SGC and the School Head, the school head’s responsibility is to ensure its effective implementation. This involves delegating responsibilities to other staff and setting up processes to monitor progress, collecting and analyzing data and documenting relevant information in the School Annual Report.
§ Implement policies Policies are developed in partnership with the SGC. The school head’s role is to inform students, parents, and staff and to set up processes and procedures to ensure that the policy is followed, e.g., a new policy on school uniform and behavior management and use of mother tongue for instruction in Grades I, II and III.
§ Provide accurate and timely information The school head works with staff to provide progress reports about the SIP to the Council at each meeting. The school head must also inform and help the Council understand government requirements and initiatives. Financial reports are provided to the finance committee to ensure expenditure is being appropriately managed.

4.2 Roles of the SGC

§ Participates in the development of the SIP. The SIP is a document that outlines the vision, values, goals, targets, strategies and resources in school improvement. It is developed in a participatory manner by the School Planning Team (the membership of which is decided by the SGC) and representatives from groups of school community stakeholders.
The SGC takes an active part in the development of the SIP, and together with the School Head, endorses the same to the Schools Division Superintendent for review and acceptance.
§ Assists the school in installing the Monitoring and Evaluation System for school performance based on SIP and reports accomplishments to the community and the Department. This requires the SGC to participate in collecting information about the school’s performance and reports it to the Department and local community through a self-assessment process.
§ Generates resources to support implementation of the SIP. The SGC supports the implementation of the SIP and undertakes resource generation and mobilization in support to SIP implementation.
§ Organizes committees to support the school head and staff in the implementation of the SIP. Relevant committees may be organized to support the school in implementing the SIP. The Council has to ensure that committees understand their role and tasks. (Please refer to Appendix 1.5. for sample committee duty statements.)
4.3 Relationships
§ The SGC can make representation to Local Government Units and other stakeholder groups to get the resources needed in the implementation of the SIP. § The SGC and the school staff must exist with mutual trust and respect and share responsibilities in the continuous improvement of learners’ performance. § The willingness of school heads to involve parents and community members for school tasks and in decision- making provides a necessary foundation for all school-family-community partnerships.
4.4 Summary Points§ SGCs provide an opportunity to develop a partnership between the school and school community to improve the learning performance and holistic development of all students. § The role of the SGC is to assist in planning and setting direction for the school. § The role of the school head is to provide the day to day management of the school. § The positive relationship founded on mutual respect, between the SGC and school head will be essential for the success of the school shown in children’s learning, growth and development. § Clear understanding of the rules for membership, roles and procedures must be developed. § The SGC must work for the welfare and well-being of all students.
5. Getting Started
5.1 Overview of the Election Process
The SGC is created through an election process. The School Head shall convene stakeholder representatives in an assembly (parents of students, students, teachers, LGU representatives, NGOs, etc) and provide them with the basic information on School Councils. This can serve as an establishment meeting with the following areas for discussion and decision-making:
§ readiness and capability of the school community to organize the SGC § level of involvement of the SGC in the school improvement process § membership/composition of the SGC § term of office of Council members § election process for the initial Council members ( an ad hoc committee may be organized to facilitate the election procedures agreed upon in the establishment meeting; subsequent elections will follow the process defined in the SGC Constitution and By-laws) § other matters that need to be clarified to aid the assembly in decision-making
Generally, the election process involves the following steps:
1. Awareness raising - informing parents about the SGC and providing notice of organizational meeting/s 2. Nomination - recruiting parents and community members to serve in the Council (parent representatives elected by the parent association, teacher representative elected by school staff, student representative/s elected by the student population, representative of the school alumni association, LGU representative, etc.) 3. Election - process clearly defined in the SGC Constitution and By-laws 4. Installation - establishing Council structures (e.g., development of Constitution and By-laws and other elements).
5.2 Installation Procedures
Installation Procedures involve the setting of structures like developing the Constitution and By-laws, ratifying the By-laws, developing Operating Procedures and Code of Conduct/Practice and organizing committees deemed necessary by the Council. The Council may also find it necessary to establish its decision-making process and conflict resolution procedures but these structures can all be done progressively. (Please refer to Appendix 1.8 for a sample of a decision-making process).
5.3 Composition of SGCs
The composition of SGCs should remain flexible considering the differences in the contexts of schools. Geographical location and student demographics might be considered in determining the composition and membership of the Council.
SGCs may have the following officers: 1. Chairperson 2. Vice-Chairperson 3. Secretary 4. Treasurer 5. Auditor 6. Chief Executive Officer (School Head)
5.4 Organization Process
With basic knowledge on SGCs gained through this manual, orientations or trainings, the School Head with the support of the internal stakeholders may begin the organization of the SGC.
This simple procedure in organizing SGCs is gathered from the experiences of Philippine schools which have established and functional SGCs.
a. The School Head, with the School Planning Team, identifies community members who can provide support to school improvement and are interested in school practices inclusive of the nominations from the establishment meeting.
b. School Head prepares and sends letters of invitation to the identified stakeholders to invite them to a preliminary orientation on School Council aspects and their role in school improvement and local school management/ governance. Community stakeholders identified include representatives from the retirees group, religious sector, business sector, civic organizations, private companies, NGOs, the alumni, farmers’ associations, fisherfolks’ association, indigenous peoples’ group and others interested in school practices and that improve learning and promote the holistic development of children.
c. With basic information acquired through preliminary orientation, school stakeholders in attendance manifest willingness or desire to be Council members or turn down the invitation.
d. School Planning Team goes through the process until SGC desired composition is completed. The process must ensure the engagement of committed stakeholders.
e. As the SGC composition /membership is formed, the School Planning Team conducts a more comprehensive SGC orientation workshop which culminates in an election of its officers and first planning meeting.
f. Based on the agreed process, the Council elects its first set of officers. Subsequent elections shall follow election procedure prescribed in the SGC Constitution and By-laws.
g. The SGC undertakes installation processes progressively to develop its operating procedures, code of practice, constitution and by-laws and their SGC Improvement Plan which reflects the Council’s share of responsibilities and action steps in supporting the school in implementing its SIP. Models of these SGC elements can be adapted to suit individual SGCs.
h. Completed documents are then published to inform the school community of council developments.
6. Assessment
6.1 Monitoring and EvaluationAssessment of progress is an important part of the work of the SGC. Knowing how the Council is performing is part of public accountability and ensures continuous improvement in student learning outcomes.
Monitoring generally means to be aware of the state of a system. It is a continuing collection of data to provide management and stakeholders with indications of progress on outputs and achievement of outcomes. It refers to the regular gathering and analysis of information to assist timely decision making, ensuring accountability by providing the basis for evaluation.
Evaluation is the process of learning from the results and impact of the program, either to improve the design during its implementation or to apply its lessons learned to future projects or programs. It is the process of determining the value or significance of a development activity, policy or program to determine the relevance of objectives, the effectiveness of design and implementation, the efficiency of resource use, and the sustainability of results.
6.1.1 Evaluation of Council OperationsEvaluating Council operations is done from two perspectives:
a) focus on outcomes and
b) focus on process SGC self-evaluation does not need to be sophisticated. It could be done by using very simple key questions such as:
a) Focus on Outcomes - Are we achieving success in accomplishing our role and responsibilities? - Have we improved student learning outcomes through our involvement in school practices? - Have we improved parent/client satisfaction through our involvement in schooling?
b) Focus on process - Are we working well as a team? - What is working well? What needs improvement? What can be done to improve?
The Council may develop it’s own Self-Evaluation Procedures and tools or may use the existing Monitoring and Evaluation System used by other schools. (Please refer to Appendix 2.1 for sample SGC Self- Assessment Tool and School Self-Evaluation Scheme).
6.2 Accountabilities
Accountability can be defined as the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and policies including the administration, governance and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report, explain and be answerable for resulting consequences. (Wikipedia, 04-08-08)
6.2.1 Accountability of the SGC to the school community
· The SGC is accountable to the school community for improved learning outcomes. · The SGC and its members are bound by the approved written by-laws, operating procedures, code of conduct, rules for membership and decision-making processes.
6.2.2 Accountability of the SGC to DepEd
· The Council must establish a Reporting System to report progress to the Schools Division Superintendent and the school community to keep stakeholders informed on what it has been doing.
7. Matrix of SBM Dimensions and Scale of Practice
Where do we fit into the BESRA-SBM Framework and Standards? Below is the Matrix of SBM Dimensions and Scale of Practice. Indicators that closely relate and refer to SGCs and school community partnerships are underlined.
[[#_ftnref1|[1]]] Non-government agencies are non-stock , non-profit domestic corporations or organizations as defined under Sec. 4, (H)(2) (C ) of the Tax code, organized and guaranteed exclusively for scientific research, educational, character-building and youth and sports development, health, social welfare, cultural and charitable purposes, or a combination thereof, no part of the net income of which goes into the benefit of any private individual.

Source: Philippine NGO Council[[#_ftnref1|[1]]] Comprises establishments primarily engaged in promoting the civic and social interests of their members and takes many forms: foundations; social welfare and advocacy organizations; professional or trade associations; religious organizations.
A nonprofit organization is formed for the purpose of serving a public or mutual benefit other than the pursuit or accumulation of profits for owners or investors. "The nonprofit sector is a collection of entities that are organizations; private as opposed to governmental; non-profit distributing; self-governing; voluntary; and of public benefit".
Source: http://www.learning to 05-18-08

SBM Dimension
Level I (Standard)
Level II (Progressive)
Level III (Mature)
1. School
SH is designated.
SH performs greater responsibility and accountability in school management.
SH is fully accountable to stakeholders for school performance.
SH is trained on basic competencies on instructional leadership (e.g., National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP) -SMILE).
SH exercises instructional leadership and management functions.
SH pursues continuing professional development.
SH significantly influences student learning outcomes and student holistic development.
SH is trained on SBM and Local School Board (LSB) responsibilities.
SH as a resource on SBM (e.g., acts as mentor/coach).
SH promotes/ shares SBM experiences and leading practices to other schools.
SH creates critical mass of SBM champions.
SH initiates:
-organizing stakeholders.
-installing appropriate SBM systems (e.g., school improvement planning, budgeting and resource management, staffing, performance monitoring and reporting).
SH co-operates with organized stakeholders.

SH manages SBM systems.
SH has effective working relationship with LSB & School Governing Council (SGC).

SH innovates and institutionalizes continuous school improvement process.
SH performs fund management duties (e.g. accounting / bookkeeping functions.
SH is relieved of accounting/ bookkeeping functions and devotes more attention to instructional leadership and supervision.
SH acts as fund manager and devotes more attention to instructional leadership and supervision.
2. Internal Stakeholders Participation (teachers, parents, students)
Students are made aware of their rights and responsibilities as primary stakeholders.
Students exercise their rights and fulfill their responsibilities as primary stakeholders.
Students share in school leadership and management
Students are held accountable for their performance.
Teachers are trained on curriculum, content, and pedagogy.
Teachers improve teaching effectiveness.
Teachers mentor peers.
Teachers pursue continuing professional development.
Teachers are co-leaders/ co-managers of schools.
Teachers hold themselves accountable for student performance.

Parents assume responsibilities as partners in the learning process.
Parents co-manage and co-monitor learning process.
Parents are also held accountable for the performance, achievement and well-being of their children.
Students, teachers, and parents are adequately oriented on SBM.
Students, teachers, and parents support SBM.
Students, teachers, and parents champion SBM.
Students, teachers, and parents understand their respective roles and responsibilities on SBM; and are organized for participation in SBM processes.
Organized stakeholders introduce and co-implement programs supporting school-wide improvement process.
Organized stakeholders pro-actively engage themselves in school governance and continuous school-wide improvement process.
3. External Stakeholders Participation (alumni, parents of alumni, local leaders, retired teachers, youth leaders/ Sangguniang Kabataan)
External stakeholders are organized and made aware of their rights and responsibilities as education stakeholders.
Organized external stakeholders exercise their rights and responsibilities as education stakeholders.
Organized stakeholders engage themselves in school governance and school-wide improvement process.

Local government stakeholders are oriented into a functional LSB (e.g., school building and facilities, extension classes, and sports development).
Local government stakeholders are enabled (thru capacity development interventions on resource planning and management) for an expanded LSB functions (e.g., support educational subsidies, Instructional Materials and Textbooks (IMTEX), teachers, school personnel, students’ welfare & development).
Local government stakeholders are fully enabled to institutionalize expanded LSB functions thru multi-year supplemental lump-sum budget allocation for SBM (e.g., PS, MOEE, CO).
Community leaders / People’s Organizations (Pos) / Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) are oriented, organized, and mobilized to support SBM (e.g. school community partnerships at least within the classroom or selected interventions like Adopt-a- School program).
Community leaders / POs / NGOs are enabled (through capacity development interventions resource and programming planning and management) for expanded and school-wide support (e.g. Every Child A Reader Program, institutionalized remedial class support, health and nutrition).
Community leaders / POs / NGOs are fully enabled to provide institutionalized support community-wide programs to continuously improve learning outcomes (including ALS) and to promote children’s welfare.

External stakeholders understand their respective roles and responsibilities on SBM; and are organized for participation in SBM processes.
Organized external stakeholders support implementation of school-wide improvement process which focuses on children’s learning and development.
Organized stakeholders introduce and co-implement programs supporting the school-wide improvement process which focuses on children’s learning and development.
Organized stakeholders champion SBM.
Organized stakeholders help create a community environment that supports children’s enjoyment of their right to quality education and other rights (right to express themselves freely).
4. School Improvement Process
School conducts assessment of SBM practice using assessment tool
School conducts periodic assessment of SBM practice using assessment tool.
School institutionalized assessment of SBM practice using assessment tool.
SGC is organized.
SGC supports continuous school improvement process.
SGC demands and champions continuous school improvement process.

SGC members are oriented and trained on SBM and school governance. They are made aware of their duties and responsibilities.
SGC members are performing their respective duties and responsibilities.
SGC members are held accountable for school performance.
SIP/AIP needs and priorities are systematically identified (through situation analysis within the context of existing conditions, circumstances and available resources).
School does participatory and knowledge-based SIP/AIP development and implementation that are responsive to community needs and performance feedback.
SIP/AIP formulation and implementation involve full and sustained engagement of stakeholders.
SIP/AIP emphasizes improvement of educational outcomes that include holistic development of children.
SIP/AIP meets Divisional/ Regional / National performance standards on learning outcomes.
SIP/AIP surpasses National / Regional / Divisional performance standards; Division/ Region / National plans and programs are based on SIPs/AIPs.
Stakeholders are informed, consulted, and engaged in SIP/AIP formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation.
Stakeholders are informed, consulted, and engaged in SIP/AIP formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation and are satisfied with school performance.
Stakeholders are informed, consulted, and engaged in SIP/AIP formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation and are jointly accountable for school performance.

Level I
Level II
Level III
School Improvement Process
SIP/AIP implementation is regularly tracked and reported with necessary corrective measures undertaken.
SIP/AIP implementation is benchmarked (with leading practices) and undertakes innovations and improvements.
SIP/AIP implementation is geared towards achieving exemplary performance and institutionalized benchmarking and continuous improvement processes.
Best practices are identified, documented and shared among peers.
Best practices are replicated.
Best practices are institutionalized.
Resources and funds (MOOE) are linked to SIP/AIP targets and allocated to meet minimum educational cost requirements (e.g., per capita per student).
Resources and funds are augmented with LSB and community contributions and allocated to meet desired educational outcomes.
Resources and funds are sustained by LGU and community partners through supplemental budget and community equity.
A system of incentives and rewards (and positive discipline for underperformance) based on performance contract (between SGC and DepEd) is piloted to promote school improvement process and children’s well-being.
A system of incentives and rewards (and positive discipline for underperformance) based on performance contract (between SGC and DepEd) is established with DepEd and stakeholder support to sustain school improvement process and children’s well-being.
A system of incentives and rewards (and positive discipline for underperformance) based on performance contract (between SGC and DepEd) is institutionalized with DepEd and stakeholder support to sustain school improvement process and children’s well-being.
A system of technical assistance (policy support, institutional strengthening, and training) is installed for continuous school improvement process and children’s well-being.
A system of technical assistance (policy support, institutional strengthening, and training) is strengthened for continuous school improvement process and children’s well-being.
A system of technical assistance (policy support, institutional strengthening, and training) is optimized for continuous school improvement process and children’s well-being.
5. School-based Resources
Annual School Budget (ASB) (e.g., DepEd MOOE) is aligned with SIP/AIP.
Annual School Budget (DepEd MOOE + SEF+ community contributions) is aligned with SIP/AIP.
Annual School Budget (DepEd MOOE + SEF + community contribution and LGU supplemental budget + grants/loans) is aligned with SIP/AIP.
School manages and controls funds/ resources with Division Office assistance (review and approval).
School manages and controls funds/ resources with Division Office technical guidance.
School fully manages and controls funds/ resources.
ASB is executed in accordance with guidelines.
ASB is executed with efficiency and cost effectiveness.
ASB is executed with best practices and innovations resulting in improved school performance.

ASB results in attainment of targets and desired outcomes.
ASB results surpassed targets and desired outcomes.
ASB results in sustained excellent performance.
School is properly informed of MOOE allocation / MOOE is published and drilled down to schools in cash.
School MOOE allocation is augmented with LSB and community contributions to meet desired educational outcomes.
School budget is sustained and institutionalized by LGU and community partners through supplemental budget and community equity.

School undertakes school-based procurement with Division Office assistance.
School undertakes school-based procurement with
Division Office guidance.

School undertakes own school-based procurement including IMTEX, furniture, and equipment, School Building Program (SBP) subject to DepEd-wide guidelines.
DepEd representative to the LSB is knowledgeable of SIP priorities.
DepEd representatives to the LSB ensure that SEF budget priorities support SIP/AIP and reflects increased number of educational resources (e.g. classrooms, textbooks, teacher items, equipment, teachers/school personnel welfare).
DepEd representatives to the LSB monitor and influence SEF for sustained support to SIP/AIP.

Level I (Standard)
Level II (Progressive)
Level III (Mature)
School-based Resources (continued)
MOOE funds made available to the school is recorded, optimally utilized, reported & accounted for.
All resources and funds made available to the school is recorded, optimally utilized, reported and accounted for.
All resources and funds made available to the school is recorded, optimally utilized, reported and accounted for.
6. School Performance Accountability (performance is monitored, validated, evaluated and reported)
School introduces transparency and accountability mechanisms.
School exercises transparency and accountability in carrying out its functions.
School is fully transparent and accountable.
Monitoring and Evaluation (M/E) system is installed and operational (e.g. data and reports are used in continuing improvement).
Performance and results-based M/E system is fully operational and utilized in planning.
Stakeholders and school jointly develop and implement multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional M/E system with innovations.
Major stakeholders (SGC, PTCAs, Schools Division Superintendent, Regional Office, LSB) are informed and participate in M/ E and reporting.
All stakeholders fully participate in M/ E and reporting activities.
Stakeholders hold themselves accountable for school performance.
Quarterly school performance (student and teacher performance) is monitored and evaluated by SGC.
Quarterly and annual school performance (e.g. SRC) are monitored and evaluated by community stakeholders.
School performance is presented, published and validated through community satisfaction surveys.
School Performance Accountability (continued)
Improvements in learning outcomes by Grade/Year level are monitored and evaluated by homeroom and tracked per student/subject.
Improvements in learning outcomes by Grade/Year level are monitored and evaluated on school-wide basis.
Improvements in learning outcomes are tracked for benchmarking with other SBM schools.